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  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with aging and age-related hearing loss (AHL). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of hearing loss remain unclear. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-ass...

    Authors: Toru Miwa, Fan-yan Wei and Kazuhito Tomizawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:82

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The neurotransmitter serotonin, involved in the regulation of pain and emotion, is critically regulated by the 5‐HT1A autoreceptor and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Polymorphisms of these genes affect mood a...

    Authors: Isabel Ellerbrock, Angelica Sandström, Jeanette Tour, Silvia Fanton, Diana Kadetoff, Martin Schalling, Karin B. Jensen, Rouslan Sitnikov and Eva Kosek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:81

    Content type: Research

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  3. Homozygous mutations in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase gene, GBA1, cause Gaucher’s disease (GD), while heterozygous mutations in GBA1 are a strong risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose pathological ha...

    Authors: Etsuro Nakanishi, Norihito Uemura, Hisako Akiyama, Masato Kinoshita, Sawamura Masanori, Yosuke Taruno, Hodaka Yamakado, Shu-ichi Matsuzawa, Shunichi Takeda, Yoshio Hirabayashi and Ryosuke Takahashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:80

    Content type: Research

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  4. Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) have increased intracellular Ca2+ levels follo...

    Authors: Riku Kawanabe, Kohei Yoshihara, Izuho Hatada and Makoto Tsuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:79

    Content type: Micro report

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  5. Reconsolidation has been considered a process in which a consolidated memory is turned into a labile stage. Within the reconsolidation window, the labile memory can be either erased or strengthened. Manipulati...

    Authors: Boren Lin, Khaled Alganem, Sinead M. O’Donovan, Zhen Jin, FarzanehSadat Naghavi, Olivia A. Miller, Tyler C. Ortyl, Ye Chun Ruan, Robert E. McCullumsmith and Jianyang Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:78

    Content type: Research

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  6. mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors are highly expressed and functional in the early postnatal life, and are known to positively modulate NMDA receptor function. Here, we examined the expression of NMDA rec...

    Authors: Tiziana Imbriglio, Remy Verhaeghe, Nico Antenucci, Stefania Maccari, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti and Milena Cannella

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:77

    Content type: Research

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  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disorder in which motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord degenerate. A single infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delays disease p...

    Authors: Hirotoshi Magota, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Ryo Ukai, Ryo Kiyose, Rie Onodera, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:76

    Content type: Micro report

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  8. Homeostatic plasticity is necessary for the construction and maintenance of functional neuronal networks, but principal molecular mechanisms required for or modified by homeostatic plasticity are not well unde...

    Authors: Pernille Bülow, Stephanie A. Zlatic, Peter A. Wenner, Gary J. Bassell and Victor Faundez

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:75

    Content type: Research

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  9. Neuroinflammation by activated microglia and astrocytes plays a critical role in progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a negative-feedback regulator that limits pro-infl...

    Authors: Hiroyasu Komiya, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuki Ogawa, Kosuke Suzuki, Akihiro Ogasawara, Keita Takahashi, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Hiroshi Doi and Fumiaki Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:74

    Content type: Research

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  10. Loss-of-function mutations in the human oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) gene cause intellectual disability, a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition. However, the role OPHN1 plays during neuronal development is not well ...

    Authors: Sungdae Kim, Joohyung Kim, Sunyoung Park, Joong-Jean Park and Seungbok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:73

    Content type: Research

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  11. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is expressed dominantly in the astrocytes and exerts either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects in the brain. Although PRDX6 can modulate several signaling cascades involving cognitiv...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Sureka Jasmin, Tanita Pairojana, Hsueh-Kai Chang, Kai-Chi Liang and Ingrid Y. Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:72

    Content type: Research

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  12. Insular cortex is a critical brain region that participates in the interoceptive sensations. Here, we combined the iDISCO + method and Fos immunostaining to confirm that the middle part of the right-side, but ...

    Authors: Kai Qian, Jiaqi Liu, Yiqing Cao, Jing Yang and Shuang Qiu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:71

    Content type: Research

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  13. We have previously reported that cambinol (DDL-112), a known inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (nSMase2), suppressed extracellular vesicle (EV)/exosome production in vitro in a cell model and reduced tau...

    Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

    Content type: Micro report

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  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

  15. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by the segmental deletion of human chromosome 22. This chromosomal deletion is known as high genetic risk factors for various psychiatric disorders. T...

    Authors: Ryo Saito, Chika Miyoshi, Michinori Koebis, Itaru Kushima, Kazuki Nakao, Daisuke Mori, Norio Ozaki, Hiromasa Funato, Masashi Yanagisawa and Atsu Aiba

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:68

    Content type: Research

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  16. The rodent whisker-barrel cortex system has been established as an ideal model for studying sensory information integration. The barrel cortex consists of barrel and septa columns that receive information inpu...

    Authors: Mingzhao Su, Junhua Liu, Baocong Yu, Kaixing Zhou, Congli Sun, Mengjie Yang and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:67

    Content type: Research

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  17. GAP-43 is a vertebrate neuron-specific protein and that is strongly related to axon growth and regeneration; thus, this protein has been utilized as a classical molecular marker of these events and growth cone...

    Authors: Masayasu Okada, Yosuke Kawagoe, Yuta Sato, Motohiro Nozumi, Yuya Ishikawa, Atsushi Tamada, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yonehiro Kanemura, Yohei Shinmyo, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yukihiko Fujii and Michihiro Igarashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

  19. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes memory loss. Most AD researches have focused on neurodegeneration mechanisms. Considering that neurodegenerative changes are not...

    Authors: Kyung-Ran Kim, Yoonsub Kim, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang Hun Lee, Yujin Kim, Suk-Ho Lee and Won-Kyung Ho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:62

    Content type: Research

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  20. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders that is caused by the deletion of a region containing 7 genes on chromosome 15 (MTMR10, FAN1, TRP...

    Authors: Tesshu Hori, Shohei Ikuta, Satoko Hattori, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Chieko Koike

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in different forms of plasticity in the central nervous system. NMDARs are always assembled in tetrameric form, in which two GluN1 subunits and two ...

    Authors: Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li, Jing-Shan Lu, Yinglu Liu, Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Yu-Xin Chen, Wantong Shi, Kexin Fan and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Intracellular aggregates are a common pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sys...

    Authors: Shun Kubota, Hiroshi Doi, Shigeru Koyano, Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroyasu Komiya, Atsuko Katsumoto, Shingo Ikeda, Shunta Hashiguchi, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Keita Takahashi, Misako Kunii, Mikiko Tada, Hideyuki Takeuchi and Fumiaki Tanaka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:59

    Content type: Research

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  23. Mitochondrial structural changes are associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. PRKN is known to be involved with various mechanisms of mitochondrial qual...

    Authors: Mutsumi Yokota, Soichiro Kakuta, Takahiro Shiga, Kei-ichi Ishikawa, Hideyuki Okano, Nobutaka Hattori, Wado Akamatsu and Masato Koike

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:58

    Content type: Methodology

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  24. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder resulting from an aberrant expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the ataxin-3 protein and subsequent neuronal death. The underlying i...

    Authors: Anna S. Sowa, Taissia G. Popova, Tina Harmuth, Jonasz J. Weber, Priscila Pereira Sena, Jana Schmidt, Jeannette Hübener-Schmid and Thorsten Schmidt

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:57

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of impaired social behavior and communication. Recent studies have suggested that the oxytocin sy...

    Authors: Kohei Kitagawa, Kensuke Matsumura, Masayuki Baba, Momoka Kondo, Tomoya Takemoto, Kazuki Nagayasu, Yukio Ago, Kaoru Seiriki, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Atsushi Kasai, Kazuhiro Takuma, Ryota Hashimoto, Hitoshi Hashimoto and Takanobu Nakazawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:56

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  26. Our previous study showed the intrinsic ability of descending noradrenergic neurons projecting from the locus coeruleus to the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) to suppress itch-related behaviors. Noradrenaline and α1A-ad...

    Authors: Yuto Shiraishi, Keisuke Koga, Ryo Yamagata, Izuho Hatada, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi and Makoto Tsuda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:55

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  27. TMEM132D is a human gene identified with multiple risk alleles for panic disorders, anxiety and major depressive disorders. Defining a conserved family of transmembrane proteins, TMEM132D and its homologs are sti...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Wei Jiang, Shuo Luo, Xiaoyu Yang, Changnan Wang, Bingying Wang, Yongjun Dang, Yin Shen and Dengke K. Ma

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:54

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The HapMap Project is a major international research effort to construct a resource to facilitate the discovery of relationships between human genetic variations and health and disease. The Ser19Stop single nu...

    Authors: Hisako Sugimoto, Takuro Horii, Jun-Na Hirota, Yoshitake Sano, Yo Shinoda, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yasuki Ishizaki, Hajime Hirase, Izuho Hatada, Teiichi Furuichi and Tetsushi Sadakata

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yukiko Ochiai, Taishi-Clark Takeda, Yoko Hagino, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:51

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2020 13:126

  30. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among gut microbiota disturbances and serum and spinal cord metabolic disorders in neuropathic pain. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and serum and spinal cor...

    Authors: Peng Chen, Chen Wang, Yan-na Ren, Zeng-jie Ye, Chao Jiang and Zhi-bing Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:50

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Antibiotics affect gut microbial composition, leading to Gut–Brain-Axis imbalance and neurobehavioral changes. However, the intestinal dysbacteriosis associated behavior changes are not consistently reported. ...

    Authors: Pan Wang, Ke Tu, Peng Cao, Yuefan Yang, Hao Zhang, Xin-Tong Qiu, Ming-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Jun Wu, Hui Yang and Tao Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:69

  32. Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6) on synaptic vesicle (SV) is critical for the presynaptic regulation of quantal size at the glutamatergic synapses by converting the chemical gradient (ΔpH) into membrane potential (Δ...

    Authors: Unghwi Lee, Seung Hyun Ryu and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:47

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  33. The corticostriatal circuit plays an important role in the regulation of reward- and aversion-types of behaviors. Specifically, the projection from the prelimbic cortex (PL) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has ...

    Authors: Fei Zeng, Qiaosheng Zhang, Yaling Liu, Guanghao Sun, Anna Li, Robert S. Talay and Jing Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:45

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Memory reconsolidation is thought to maintain or enhance an original memory or add new information to the memory. Retrieved inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory is enhanced through memory reconsolidation by activa...

    Authors: Hotaka Fukushima, Yue Zhang and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:44

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  35. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates attention through dopamine D1 and D2-receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) to evaluate attent...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Moeka Tanabe, Aika Yanagawa, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:43

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  36. Fear dysregulation is one of the symptoms found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The functional abnormality of the hippocampus is known to be implicated in the development of such pathology. ...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Tanita Pairojana, Pavithra Suresh, Chee-Hing Yang, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Shun-Ping Huang, Chien-Chang Chen, Narawut Pakaprot, Supin Chompoopong, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi and Ingrid Y. Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:42

    Content type: Research

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  37. The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) protein is a core organizer of the macromolecular complex in excitatory postsynapses, and its defects cause numerous synaptopathies, including autism spec...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Yeunkum Lee, Hyojin Kang, Kwon Jeong, Joori Park, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Ruiying Ma, Hyunyoung Seong, Yoonhee Kim, Hosung Jung, Jin Young Kim, Yoon Ki Kim and Kihoon Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:39

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  38. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a crucial role in integrating peripheral information regarding visceral functions. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) inhibitory neurons are abundant in the NTS, and...

    Authors: Mei-Yu Shi, Lu-Feng Ding, Yu-Hong Guo, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:38

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  39. Olig2 is an important transcription factor essential for the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes and neurons during developmental stages. However, Olig2 distribution pat...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Liang Xu, Chuying Lai, Kaiyu Hou, Junliang Chen, Yaowei Guo, Abhijeet Sambangi, Shreya Swaminathan, Chunming Xie, Zheng Wu and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:36

    Content type: Research

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  40. Pathogen infection triggers pain via activation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are the main components of innate immunity and have been implicated in pain...

    Authors: Junting Huang, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Zizhen Zhang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:35

    Content type: Micro report

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  41. The elevated plus maze test is a widely used test for assessing anxiety-like behavior and screening novel therapeutic agents in rodents. Previous studies have shown that a variety of internal factors and proce...

    Authors: Hirotaka Shoji and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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