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  1. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates attention through dopamine D1 and D2-receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) to evaluate attent...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Moeka Tanabe, Aika Yanagawa, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:43

    Content type: Micro report

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  2. Fear dysregulation is one of the symptoms found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The functional abnormality of the hippocampus is known to be implicated in the development of such pathology. ...

    Authors: Sarayut Phasuk, Tanita Pairojana, Pavithra Suresh, Chee-Hing Yang, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Shun-Ping Huang, Chien-Chang Chen, Narawut Pakaprot, Supin Chompoopong, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi and Ingrid Y. Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:42

    Content type: Research

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  3. The SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (Shank3) protein is a core organizer of the macromolecular complex in excitatory postsynapses, and its defects cause numerous synaptopathies, including autism spec...

    Authors: Chunmei Jin, Yeunkum Lee, Hyojin Kang, Kwon Jeong, Joori Park, Yinhua Zhang, Hyae Rim Kang, Ruiying Ma, Hyunyoung Seong, Yoonhee Kim, Hosung Jung, Jin Young Kim, Yoon Ki Kim and Kihoon Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:39

    Content type: Micro report

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  4. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a crucial role in integrating peripheral information regarding visceral functions. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) inhibitory neurons are abundant in the NTS, and...

    Authors: Mei-Yu Shi, Lu-Feng Ding, Yu-Hong Guo, Yu-Xiao Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi and Pak-Ming Lau

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:38

    Content type: Micro report

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  5. Olig2 is an important transcription factor essential for the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes and neurons during developmental stages. However, Olig2 distribution pat...

    Authors: Hui Wang, Liang Xu, Chuying Lai, Kaiyu Hou, Junliang Chen, Yaowei Guo, Abhijeet Sambangi, Shreya Swaminathan, Chunming Xie, Zheng Wu and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:36

    Content type: Research

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  6. Pathogen infection triggers pain via activation of the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are the main components of innate immunity and have been implicated in pain...

    Authors: Junting Huang, Vinicius M. Gadotti, Zizhen Zhang and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:35

    Content type: Micro report

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  7. The elevated plus maze test is a widely used test for assessing anxiety-like behavior and screening novel therapeutic agents in rodents. Previous studies have shown that a variety of internal factors and proce...

    Authors: Hirotaka Shoji and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:34

    Content type: Research

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  8. GABAergic interneurons play a critical role in tuning neural networks in the central nervous system, and their defects are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, the mDlx enhancer is solely use...

    Authors: Chiaki Hoshino, Ayumu Konno, Nobutake Hosoi, Ryosuke Kaneko, Ryo Mukai, Junichi Nakai and Hirokazu Hirai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:33

    Content type: Research

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  9. Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is inefficient. However, the neurons in the peripheral nervous system display robust regeneration after injury, indicating that axonal regeneration is differenti...

    Authors: Hyemin Kim, Jinyoung Lee and Yongcheol Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:31

    Content type: Research

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  10. Metabolites underlying brain function and pathology are not as well understood as genes. Here, we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further understand the mechanisms of memory processing in sleep. As hi...

    Authors: Iyo Koyanagi, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Toshie Naoi, Takaaki Ohnishi, Naoko Kaneko, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Taka-Aki Sato and Masanori Sakaguchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:30

    Content type: Research

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  11. Intelligence predicts important life and health outcomes, but the biological mechanisms underlying differences in intelligence are not yet understood. The use of genetically determined metabotypes (GDMs) to un...

    Authors: Jian Yang, Binbin Zhao, Li Qian, Fengjie Gao, Yanjuan Fan, Xiaoyan He, Qingyan Ma, Lihong Yang, Bin Yan, Wei Wang and Xiancang Ma

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:29

    Content type: Research

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  12. Neuropathic pain (NP) remains an untreatable disease due to the complex pathophysiology that involves the whole pain neuraxis including the forebrain. Sensory dysfunctions such as allodynia and hyperalgesia ar...

    Authors: Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Monica Iannotta, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Rosmara Infantino, Flavia Ricciardi, Claudia Cristiano, Rosa Maria Vitale, Pietro Amodeo, Ida Marabese, Carmela Belardo, Vito de Novellis, Salvatore Paino, Enza Palazzo, Antonio Calignano, Vincenzo Di Marzo…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:28

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:64

  13. CACNA1A pathogenic variants have been linked to several neurological disorders including familial hemiplegic migraine and cerebellar conditions. More recently, de novo variants have been associated with severe ea...

    Authors: Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Laurent Ferron, A. Micheil Innes and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:27

    Content type: Research

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  14. The synaptic tag and capture (STC) hypothesis provides an important theoretical basis for understanding the synaptic basis of associative learning. We recently provided pharmacological evidence that calcium-pe...

    Authors: Pojeong Park, Heather Kang, John Georgiou, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Graham L. Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:26

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a primary cause of disability and death across the world. Previously, RNA analysis was widely used to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying TBI; however, the relati...

    Authors: Zhongxiang Zhang, Jiangtao Yu, Pengcheng Wang, Lian Lin, Ruining Liu, Rong Zeng, Haoli Ma and Yan Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:25

    Content type: Research

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  16. Disrupted GABAergic neurons have been extensively described in brain tissues from individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and animal models for ASD. However, the contribution of these aberrant inhibito...

    Authors: Sangyep Shin, Andrea Santi and Shiyong Huang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:24

    Content type: Research

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  17. N-cadherin is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that stabilizes excitatory synapses, by connecting pre- and post-synaptic termini. Upon NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation by glutamate, membrane-proximal domain...

    Authors: M. Asada-Utsugi, K. Uemura, M. Kubota, Y. Noda, Y. Tashiro, T. M. Uemura, H. Yamakado, M. Urushitani, R. Takahashi, S. Hattori, T. Miyakawa, N. Ageta-Ishihara, K. Kobayashi, M. Kinoshita and A. Kinoshita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:23

    Content type: Research

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  18. Previously, we found that brains of adult zebrafish heterozygous for Alzheimer’s disease-related mutations in their presenilin 1 gene (psen1, orthologous to human PSEN1) show greater basal expression levels of hy...

    Authors: Karissa Barthelson, Morgan Newman, Cameron J. Nowell and Michael Lardelli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:22

    Content type: Micro report

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  19. We recently found a significant association between exonic copy-number variations in the Rho GTPase activating protein 10 (Arhgap10) gene and schizophrenia in Japanese patients. Special attention was paid to one ...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Hada, Bolati Wulaer, Taku Nagai, Norimichi Itoh, Masahito Sawahata, Akira Sobue, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Daisuke Mori, Itaru Kushima, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Norio Ozaki and Kiyofumi Yamada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:21

    Content type: Research

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  20. Voltage-gated sodium channels are key players in neuronal excitability and pain signaling. Functional expression of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 is under the control of SUMOylated collapsin response me...

    Authors: Kimberly Gomez, Dongzhi Ran, Cynthia L. Madura, Aubin Moutal and Rajesh Khanna

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:20

    Content type: Research

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  21. Writer’s cramp (WC) is a task-specific focal dystonia that occurs selectively in the hand and arm during writing. Previous studies have shown a role for genetics in the pathology of task-specific focal dystoni...

    Authors: Miaozhen Huang, Esther A. R. Nibbeling, Tjerk J. Lagrand, Ivana A. Souza, Justus L. Groen, Maria A. Gandini, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Johannes H. T. M. Koelman, Noam Adir, Richard J. Sinke, Gerald W. Zamponi, Marina A. J. Tijssen and Dineke S. Verbeek

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:18

    Content type: Micro report

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  22. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system and plays a crucial role in maintaining the human body's homeostasis. This study aims to investigate the resting state functional connectivity ...

    Authors: Jian Kong, Yiting Huang, Jiao Liu, Siyi Yu, Cheng Ming, Helen Chen, Georgia Wilson, William F. Harvey, Wen Li and Chenchen Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:17

    Content type: Research

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  23. Lysosomal dysfunction is a central pathway associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. Haploinsufficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase GBA (encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase)) is one of the largest gene...

    Authors: Ria Thomas, Elizabeth B. Moloney, Zachary K. Macbain, Penelope J. Hallett and Ole Isacson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:16

    Content type: Research

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  24. Chronic pruritus is a symptom that commonly observed in neurological diseases. It has been hypothesized that the chronic pruritus may result from sensitization of itch-signaling pathways but the mechanisms rem...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Jin Tao, Yehong Fang and Chao Ma

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:15

    Content type: Research

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  25. Mitochondrial movement in neurons is finely regulated to meet the local demand for energy and calcium buffering. Elaborate transport machinery including motor complexes is required to deliver and localize mito...

    Authors: Bo Kyoung Suh, Seol-Ae Lee, Cana Park, Yeongjun Suh, Soo Jeong Kim, Youngsik Woo, Truong Thi My Nhung, Su Been Lee, Dong Jin Mun, Bon Seong Goo, Hyun Sun Choi, So Jung Kim and Sang Ki Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:14

    Content type: Research

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  26. Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating brain disease that affects about 1% of world population. Among the top genetic associations, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene encodes a zinc finger protein, associated w...

    Authors: Fengping Dong, Joseph Mao, Miranda Chen, Joy Yoon and Yingwei Mao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:12

    Content type: Research

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  27. The neurotrophin Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple bipartite transcripts. Each BDNF transcript is composed by one out of 11 alternatively spliced exons containing the 5′untranslat...

    Authors: Andrea Colliva and Enrico Tongiorgi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:10

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Jacob is a synapto-nuclear messenger protein that couples NMDAR activity to CREB-dependent gene expression. In this study, we investigated the nuclear distribution of Jacob and report a prominent targeting to ...

    Authors: Sebastian Samer, Rajeev Raman, Gregor Laube, Michael R. Kreutz and Anna Karpova

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:9

    Content type: Short report

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  29. Psychiatric disorders are affected by genetic susceptibility and environmental adversities. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression under certain environments, such as stress, is a key issue in psychiatri...

    Authors: Jungyoung Park, Joonhee Lee, Koeul Choi and Hyo Jung Kang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:7

    Content type: Micro report

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  30. As a dynamic organelle, mitochondria continuously fuse and divide with adjacent mitochondria. Imbalance in mitochondria dynamics leads to their dysfunction, which implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Howe...

    Authors: So Jung Park, Ji-Eun Bae, Doo Sin Jo, Joon Bum Kim, Na Yeon Park, Jianguo Fang, Yong-Keun Jung, Dong Gyu Jo and Dong-Hyung Cho

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:6

    Content type: Micro report

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  31. Reduced expression of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), encoded by the Gad1 gene, is a consistent finding in postmortem brains of patients with several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar di...

    Authors: Shigeo Miyata, Toshikazu Kakizaki, Kazuyuki Fujihara, Hideru Obinata, Touko Hirano, Junichi Nakai, Mika Tanaka, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji F. Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura and Yuchio Yanagawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:5

    Content type: Research

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  32. A novel missense mutation in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore forming α1 subunit of the CaV2.1 voltage-gated calcium channel was identified in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia. This mutation leads to a s...

    Authors: Eder Gambeta, Maria A. Gandini, Ivana A. Souza, Laurent Ferron and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:4

    Content type: Short report

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  33. To evaluate the genetic effects of sex hormone traits on the development of mental traits in middle-aged adults.

    Authors: Xiao Liang, ShiQiang Cheng, Jing Ye, XiaoMeng Chu, Yan Wen, Li Liu, Xin Qi, YuMeng Jia and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:3

    Content type: Research

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  34. Formation of temporal association memory and context-specific fear memory is thought to require medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) inputs to the hippocampus during learning events. However, whether the MEC inputs ...

    Authors: Min Soo Kang and Jin-Hee Han

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:2

    Content type: Micro report

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  35. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a transcription factor that is involved in organizing chromatin structure. A reduction of CTCF expression is known to develop distinct clinical features. Furthermore, conditional...

    Authors: Dong Il Choi, Myeongwon Kim, Somi Kim, Nam-Kyung Yu, Chuljung Kwak, Hyunhyo Seo, Kyungmin Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:1

    Content type: Micro report

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  36. Corticogenesis is one of the most critical and complicated processes during embryonic brain development. Any slight impairment in corticogenesis could cause neurodevelopmental disorders such as Fragile X syndr...

    Authors: Cristine R. Casingal, Takako Kikkawa, Hitoshi Inada, Yukio Sasaki and Noriko Osumi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:167

    Content type: Research

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  37. Disturbances of attention are a common behavioral feature associated with neuropsychiatric disorders with largely unknown underlying causes. We previously developed an object-based attention test (OBAT) as a s...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuo Kunisawa, Hisayoshi Kubota, Willy Jaya Suento, Kuniaki Saito, Akihiro Mouri and Toshitaka Nabeshima

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:171

    Content type: Micro report

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  38. Immune molecules, such as cytokines, complement, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins, in the central nervous system are often associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuronal MHC class I (M...

    Authors: Bolati Wulaer, Kazuhiro Hada, Akira Sobue, Norimichi Itoh, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Taku Nagai and Kiyofumi Yamada

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:170

    Content type: Research

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  39. The brain is composed of cells having distinct genomic DNA sequences that arise post-zygotically, known as somatic genomic mosaicism (SGM). One form of SGM is aneuploidy—the gain and/or loss of chromosomes—whi...

    Authors: Whitney S. McDonald, Kyoko Miyamoto, Richard Rivera, Grace Kennedy, Beatriz S. V. Almeida, Marcy A. Kingsbury and Jerold Chun

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:169

    Content type: Research

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  40. Dysfunctional dendritic arborization is a key feature of many developmental neurological disorders. Across various human brain regions, basal dendritic complexity is known to increase along a caudal-to-rostral...

    Authors: Brian D. Swinehart, Katherine M. Bland, Z. Logan Holley, Andrew J. Lopuch, Zachary O. Casey, Christopher J. Handwerk and George S. Vidal

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:168

    Content type: Short report

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  41. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential for inducing the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation in muscle fibers, and LRP4 plays a critical role in dendritic development and ...

    Authors: Min Yan, Amin Guo, Peng Chen, Hongyang Jing, Dongyan Ren, Yanzi Zhong, Yongqiang Wu, Erkang Fei, Xinsheng Lai, Suqi Zou and Shunqi Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2020 13:166

    Content type: Research

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