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  1. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) regulates neurotransmitter receptor recycling from endosomes. A missense mutation (D620N) in VPS35 leads to autosomal-dominant, late-onset Parkinson’s disease. Here, we stud...

    Authors: Chelsie A. Kadgien, Anusha Kamesh and Austen J. Milnerwood

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:143

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Assessment of neural activity in the specific brain area is critical for understanding the circuit mechanisms underlying altered brain function and behaviors. A number of immediate early genes (IEGs) that are ...

    Authors: Sang Ho Yoon, Woo Seok Song, Sung Pyo Oh, Young Sook Kim and Myoung-Hwan Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:142

    Content type: Micro report

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  3. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is expressed in both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic neurons. The expression and role of AVP exhibit remarkable divergence between these two neuronal populations. Polysynaptic pa...

    Authors: Wen Han Tong, Samira Abdulai-Saiku and Ajai Vyas

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:141

    Content type: Micro report

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  4. Previous studies have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the diffusible messengers for enhancing synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Less information is available about ...

    Authors: Hui-Hui Miao, Zhuang Miao, Ji-Gang Pan, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:140

    Content type: Research

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  5. Chronic pain easily leads to concomitant mood disorders, and the excitability of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) pyramidal neurons (PNs) is involved in chronic pain-related anxiety. However, the mechanism by w...

    Authors: Fang-bing Shao, Jun-fan Fang, Si-si Wang, Meng-ting Qiu, Dan-ning Xi, Xiao-ming Jin, Jing-gen Liu, Xiao-mei Shao, Zui Shen, Yi Liang, Jian-qiao Fang and Jun-ying Du

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:139

    Content type: Research

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  6. To understand the information encoded in a connection between the neurons, postsynaptic current (PSC) has been widely measured as a primary index of synaptic strength in the field of neurophysiology. Although ...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Jae Jin Shin and Sang Jeong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:138

    Content type: Methodology

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  7. We recently showed that synaptophysin (Syph) and synapsin (Syn) can induce liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) to cluster small synaptic-like microvesicles in living cells which are highly reminiscent of SV ...

    Authors: Goeun Kim, Sang-Eun Lee, Seonyoung Jeong, Jeongkun Lee, Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:137

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Experimental animals, such as non-human primates (NHPs), mice, Zebrafish, and Drosophila, are frequently employed as models to gain insights into human physiology and pathology. In developmental neuroscience a...

    Authors: Ryuichi Nakajima, Hideo Hagihara and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:135

    Content type: Micro report

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  9. Cumulative evidence shows that gut microbiome can influence brain function and behavior via the inflammatory processes. However, the role of interaction between gut dysbiosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) in th...

    Authors: Yujing Chen, Peilin Meng, Shiqiang Cheng, Yumeng Jia, Yan Wen, Xuena Yang, Yao Yao, Chuyu Pan, Chun’e Li, Huijie Zhang, Jingxi Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:133

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. The medium-chain fatty acids octanoic acid (C8) and decanoic acid (C10) are gaining attention as beneficial brain fuels in several neurological disorders. The protective effects of C8 and C10 have been propose...

    Authors: Jens V. Andersen, Emil W. Westi, Emil Jakobsen, Nerea Urruticoechea, Karin Borges and Blanca I. Aldana

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:132

    Content type: Research

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  11. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SOM-INs) are a major subpopulation of GABAergic cells in CA1 hippocampus that receive excitation from pyramidal cells (PCs), and, in turn, provide feedback inhibition onto...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Racine, François-Xavier Michon, Isabel Laplante and Jean-Claude Lacaille

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:130

    Content type: Research

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  12. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a typical characteristic of high altitude environment and causes a spectrum of pathophysiological effects, including headaches, gliovascular dysfunction and cognitive retardation. Her...

    Authors: Yang Zhou, Huanyu Lu, Ying Liu, Zaihua Zhao, Qian Zhang, Chong Xue, Yuankang Zou, Zipeng Cao and Wenjing Luo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that impairs control and coordination of movement. Here we tested whether treatment with the histo...

    Authors: Maxinne Watchon, Luan Luu, Katherine J. Robinson, Kristy C. Yuan, Alana De Luca, Hannah J. Suddull, Madelaine C. Tym, Gilles J. Guillemin, Nicholas J. Cole, Garth A. Nicholson, Roger S. Chung, Albert Lee and Angela S. Laird

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of severe epilepsies that are characterized by seizures and developmental delay. DEEs are primarily attributed to genetic causes and an increasin...

    Authors: Robin N. Stringer, Bohumila Jurkovicova-Tarabova, Ivana A. Souza, Judy Ibrahim, Tomas Vacik, Waseem Mahmoud Fathalla, Jozef Hertecant, Gerald W. Zamponi, Lubica Lacinova and Norbert Weiss

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:126

    Content type: Micro report

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  15. Widespread sleep deprivation is a continuing public health problem in the United States and worldwide affecting adolescents and adults. Acute sleep deprivation results in decrements in spatial memory and cogni...

    Authors: Marie E. Gaine, Ethan Bahl, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Jacob J. Michaelson, Ted Abel and Lisa C. Lyons

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. To understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β...

    Authors: Wen-bo Chen, Yu-xiang Wang, Hong-gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun, Pan Li, Tao Zhang, Wan-ge Lu and Yan-qiang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:124

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Cerebral ischemia, a common cerebrovascular disease, is characterized by functional deficits and apoptotic cell death. Autophagy, a type of programmed cell death, plays critical roles in controlling neuronal d...

    Authors: Yuan Yao, Yingshi Ji, Jinghong Ren, Huanyu Liu, Rajesh Khanna and Li Sun

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:123

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with aging being considered the greatest risk factor for developing PD. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to participate in the aging ...

    Authors: Tae-Young Ha, Yu Ree Choi, Hye Rin Noh, Seon-Heui Cha, Jae-Bong Kim and Sang Myun Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:122

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Accumulating evidence indicates that the actin regulator cofilin is overactivated in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but whether this abnormality contributes to synaptic and cognitive impairments in AD is unclear. I...

    Authors: Haiwang Zhang, Youssif Ben Zablah, An Liu, Dongju Lee, Haorui Zhang, Yanghong Meng, Changxi Zhou, Xingde Liu, Yiming Wang and Zhengping Jia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a malformation of the cerebral cortex with poorly-defined epileptogenic zones (EZs), and poor surgical outcome in FCD is associated with inaccurate localization of the EZ. Hen...

    Authors: Arpna Srivastava, Krishan Kumar, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, Manjari Tripathi, Vivek Dubey, Devina Sharma, Nitin Yadav, M. C. Sharma, Sanjeev Lalwani, Ramesh Doddamani, P. Sarat Chandra and Aparna Banerjee Dixit

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:120

    Content type: Research

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  21. Epigenetic abnormalities play a crucial role in many tumors, including glioma. RNA methylation occurs as an epigenetic modification similar to DNA methylation and histone modification. m6A methylation is the most...

    Authors: Ting Pan, Fan Wu, Liwen Li, Shiyan Wu, Fang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Caixing Sun and Liang Xia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:119

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  22. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, and the change in the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered as the underlying pathological mechanism. Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) i...

    Authors: Ying Sun, Le Ma, Jianhua Chen, Weidi Wang, Shiyu Peng, Ying Cheng, Yu Zhang, Jinghong Chen and Peijun Ju

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:118

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. We have previously reported that cellular prion protein (PrPC) can down-regulate NMDA receptor activity and in a copper dependent manner. Here, we employed AAV9 to introduce murine cellular prion protein into mou...

    Authors: Sun Huang, Stefanie A. Black, Junting Huang, Peter K. Stys and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:117

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  24. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Menin...

    Authors: Jiyang Fu, Liang Li, Dong Huo, Ruicheng Yang, Bo Yang, Bojie Xu, Xiaopei Yang, Menghong Dai, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen and Xiangru Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. T-type calcium channels are important regulators of neuronal excitability. The mammalian brain expresses three T-type channel isoforms (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3) with distinct biophysical properties that are ...

    Authors: Fernando R. Fernandez, Mircea C. Iftinca, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:115

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  26. Clock genes not only regulate the circadian rhythm of physiological activities but also participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Previous studies have documented the abnormal expression of clock genes...

    Authors: Hao Wu, Yong Liu, Lishuo Liu, Qiang Meng, Changwang Du, Kuo Li, Shan Dong, Yong Zhang, Huanfa Li and Hua Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:113

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Memory and long term potentiation require de novo protein synthesis. A key regulator of this process is mTORC1, a complex comprising the mTOR kinase. Growth factors activate mTORC1 via a pathway involving PI3-...

    Authors: Dany Khamsing, Solène Lebrun, Isabelle Fanget, Nathanaël Larochette, Christophe Tourain, Vincent de Sars, Maia Brunstein, Martin Oheim, Damien Carrel, François Darchen and Claire Desnos

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:112

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The morphological dynamics of astrocytes are altered in the hippocampus during memory induction. Astrocyte–neuron interactions on synapses are called tripartite synapses. These control the synaptic function in...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sang-Min Lee, Dongsoo Kim, Heh-In Im, Hye-Sun Kim and Yun Ha Jeong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:111

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  29. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the greatest risk factors for AD is the apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele. The APOE4 genotype has been shown to negatively impa...

    Authors: Joseph O. Ojo, Jon M. Reed, Gogce Crynen, Prashanthi Vallabhaneni, James Evans, Benjamin Shackleton, Maximillian Eisenbaum, Charis Ringland, Anastasia Edsell, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford and Corbin Bachmeier

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Rabies virus (RV) is the most widely used vector for mapping neural circuits. Previous studies have shown that the RV glycoprotein can be a target to improve the retrograde transsynaptic tracing efficiency. Ho...

    Authors: Fan Jia, Li Li, Haizhou Liu, Pei Lv, Xiangwei Shi, Yang Wu, Chen Ling and Fuqiang Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:109

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  31. Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

  32. Histone modifications are a key mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is critically involved in the consolidation of multiple forms of memory. However, the roles of histone m...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Myeong Seong Bak, Ahbin Kim, Yujin Kim, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ye Lee Kim, Yang-Sook Chun, Joon-Yong An, Sang-Beom Seo, Sang Jeong Kim and Yong-Seok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:106

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Recently, a pathological condition called cochlear synaptopathy has been clarified, and as a disorder of the auditory nerve synapses that occurs prior to failure of hair cells, it has been recognized as a majo...

    Authors: Yutaka Koizumi, Kunio Mizutari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani and Seiji Kakehata

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:105

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or fight-or-flight response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate...

    Authors: Akira Yamashita, Shunpei Moriya, Ryusei Nishi, Jun Kaminosono, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:104

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Jinsoo Seo, Jaekwang Lee, Shashank M. Dravid, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Sukhee Cho, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Woohyun Koh, Bo-Eun Yoon, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Guido Mannaioni, Stephen F. Traynelis, Yong Chul Bae…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:103

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:7

  36. Mitochondrial function is required for brain energy homeostasis and neuroadaptation. Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine affects mitochondrial dynamics and morphological characteristics within the nucleus ...

    Authors: Shannon L. Cole, Ramesh Chandra, Maya Harris, Ishan Patel, Torrance Wang, Hyunjae Kim, Leah Jensen, Scott J. Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Amy M. Gancarz-Kausch, David M. Dietz and Mary Kay Lobo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:101

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates cellular homeostasis. It is constitutively active in neurons and controls the essential steps of neuronal development, leading to its dysfunction in ...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Kwak, You-kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Jun, Mootaek Roh, Hyunhyo Seo, Juhyun Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Jin-A Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:100

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  38. Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are ...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Min-Hee Yi, Heejin Jeong, Przemyslaw Peter McEwan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Shashank Ganatra, Yi Ren, Jason R. Richardson, Seog Bae Oh and Long-Jun Wu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:99

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiated neurons (iPSC-neurons) are a widely used cellular model in the research of the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how well they captu...

    Authors: Leonard C. Steg, Gemma L. Shireby, Jennifer Imm, Jonathan P. Davies, Alice Franklin, Robert Flynn, Seema C. Namboori, Akshay Bhinge, Aaron R. Jeffries, Joe Burrage, Grant W. A. Neilson, Emma M. Walker, Leo W. Perfect, Jack Price, Grainne McAlonan, Deepak P. Srivastava…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstr...

    Authors: Gavin A. Scott, Dylan J. Terstege, Andrew J. Roebuck, Kelsea A. Gorzo, Alex P. Vu, John G. Howland and Jonathan R. Epp

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:97

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Reductions in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system exist across multiple brain regions in schizophrenia and encompass both pre- and postsynaptic components. While reduced midbrain GABAergic inhibitory neurotr...

    Authors: Tertia D. Purves-Tyson, Amelia M. Brown, Christin Weissleder, Debora A. Rothmond and Cynthia Shannon Weickert

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:96

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. ASDs have a strong genetic basis with mutations involved in the dev...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Yewon Jung, Kevin Lee, Craig C. Garner and Johanna M. Montgomery

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:95

    Content type: Micro report

    Published on:

  43. The neuronal circuitry for pain signals has been intensively studied for decades. The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PB) was shown to play a crucial role in nociceptive information processing. Previous...

    Authors: Mariko Ito, Masashi Nagase, Suguru Tohyama, Kaori Mikami, Fusao Kato and Ayako M. Watabe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:94

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

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